Peloponnesian War, (431–404 bce), war fought between the two leading city-states in ancient Greece, Athens and Sparta.

In Sparta, full citizens were forbidden from doing manual labor, and this meant that nearly all of Sparta’s food supply depended on the forced labor of these helots, many of whom were the subjects or descendants of cities on the Peloponnese conquered by Sparta.

At the end of 411 the rebuilt Athenian navy, fresh from several victories, acted to restore democratic rule. Visit top-rated & must-see attractions. If you are a resident of another country or region, please select the appropriate version of Tripadvisor for your country or region in the drop-down menu.

All rights reserved. In the following years their respective blocs observed an uneasy peace.

Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In the meantime (430–429), the Spartans attacked Athenian bases in western Greece but were repulsed. On this famously scenic peninsula, Byzantines, Ottomans, Spartans and others once ruled the day. In the next few years the Athenians took the offensive.

The next 11 years made up the war’s second period of fighting. You’ll rule the splendid bike routes amid sweeping coastal and mountain vistas. The decisive event was the catastrophe suffered by the Athenians in Sicily. Sparta and its allies accused Athens of aggression and threatened war.

Sparta is among the most significant cities of southern Peloponnese.

Sparta is located below the majestic tops of mount Taygetos and at the northern part of river Evrotas. An overview of ancient Greek civilization. Peloponnese Peloponnese is a peninsula in southern Greece.Originally a peninsula connected to the rest of the country by the Isthmus of Corinth, it is now cut off from the mainland by the narrow Corinth Canal, spanned by bridges connecting Peloponnese to Attica across the canal. Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids!

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. This set the stage for Cleon’s rival Nicias to persuade the Athenians to accept the Spartans’ offer of peace. The prefectures' largest part of ctus and oil production is concentrated in the areas of Sparta and Gytheion ran by Evrotas. more. However, the democratic leaders refused Spartan peace offerings, and the war continued at sea with the Spartan and Athenian fleets trading costly victories. Pericles declined to engage the superior allied forces and instead urged the Athenians to keep to their city and make full use of their naval superiority by harassing their enemies’ coasts and shipping. Omissions? What are the top attractions to visit in Sparta? The next year, starved by an impenetrable blockade, Athens capitulated. The years of fighting that followed can be divided into two periods, separated by a truce of six years. This is the version of our website addressed to speakers of English in the United States.

Thus, the Athenians had the stronger navy and the Spartans the stronger army. See one of our recent Ireland101 Tribe Gatherings. 478 BCE - 454 BCE The treasury of the Delian League is kept on Delos until its removal to Athens . Corrections? The end came in 405 when the Athenian navy was destroyed at Aegospotami by the Spartan fleet under Lysander, who had received much aid from the Persians. By 411 Athens itself was in political turmoil.

Sparta is 225km from Athens.

Updates? It is a rather new city, it was established in 1834. Athens’ defeat was perhaps the worst casualty in a war that crippled Greek military strength, and thus the most culturally advanced Greek state was brought into final eclipse. Sparta is located below the majestic tops of mount Taygetos and at the northern part of river Evrotas. Share 0 0 Peloponnese Diaspora around the world. It was a period in which diplomatic maneuvers gradually gave way to small-scale military operations as each city tried to win smaller states over to its side. Keep me informed about Peloponnese online & offline events. We have reviews of the best places to see in Sparta. The top attractions to visit in Sparta are: The best day trips from Sparta according to Tripadvisor travelers are: What are the most popular things to do in Sparta with kids? The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. But the revolt was headed off by the Athenians, who won control of the chief city, Mytilene. The uncertain peace was finally shattered when, in 415, the Athenians launched a massive assault against Sicily. Finally, in the spring of 431, a Spartan ally, Thebes, attacked an Athenian ally, Plataea, and open war began. In a decisive battle at Amphipolis in 422, both Brasidas and the Athenian leader Cleon were killed. Sparta is among the most significant cities of southern Peloponnese. The first period lasted 10 years and began with the Spartans, under Archidamus II, leading an army into Attica, the region around Athens.

The fighting engulfed virtually the entire Greek world, and it was properly regarded by Thucydides, whose contemporary account of it is considered to be among the world’s finest works of history, as the most momentous war up to that time. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Peloponnesian War, Ancient Origins - The Peloponnesian War: Intrigues and Conquests in Ancient Greece, Peloponnesian War - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Peloponnesian War - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Ancient Greek civilization: The Peloponnesian War. 2018 © Soon afterward the navy was also beaten, and the Athenians were utterly destroyed as they tried to retreat.

Peloponnese - Patras, Sparta, Olympia, Pylos, Kalamata. Find what to do today, this weekend, or in November. Even after gaining reinforcements in 413, the Athenian army was defeated again. Each stood at the head of alliances that, between them, included nearly every Greek city-state.

Its urban planning is very good. Fighting ensued, and the Athenians then took steps that explicitly violated the Thirty Years’ Treaty. Within a few months, however, Pericles fell victim to a terrible plague that raged through the crowded city, killing a large part of its army as well as many civilians. On the advice of Pericles, its most influential leader, Athens refused to back down.

The Athenian alliance was, in fact, an empire that included most of the island and coastal states around the northern and eastern shores of the Aegean Sea. It is the capital of both the prefecture of Laconia, and the province of Lacedaemon. Sparta was leader of an alliance of independent states that included most of the major land powers of the Peloponnese and central Greece, as well as the sea power Corinth. However, it seems JavaScript is either disabled or not supported by your browser. Thank you, we will inform you when there are new events. Peloponnesian League alliance between Sparta, Corinth, Elis and Tegea which establishes Spartan hegemony over the Peloponnese. Urged on by the demagogue Cleon, the Athenians voted to massacre the men of Mytilene and enslave everyone else, but they relented the next day and killed only the leaders of the revolt. In 425 the picture was bleak for Sparta, which began to sue for peace. In 428 they tried to aid the island state of Lesbos, a tributary of Athens that was planning to revolt.

Greece: Sparta, Monemvasia & the Peloponnesian Peninsula Cycle into past millennia along Greece’s Peloponnese, legendary crossroads of civilizations. It is the capital of both the prefecture of Laconia, and the province of Lacedaemon. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. It is a rather new city, it was established in 1834. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Athenian naval forces in the harbour of Syracuse, Sicily, during the Peloponnesian War, 19th-century print. The events that led to renewed hostilities began in 433, when Athens allied itself with Corcyra (modern Corfu), a strategically important colony of Corinth. Its urban planning is very good. The Spartans also suffered reverses at sea. JavaScript must be enabled in order for you to use Google Maps. The so-called Peace of Nicias began in 421 and lasted six years. The legendary period, Ancient Sparta & Mystras Private Day Tour from Athens, See all day trips from Sparta on Tripadvisor, See all kid friendly things to do in Sparta on Tripadvisor. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Sparta was leader of an alliance of independent states that included most of the major land powers of the Peloponnese and central Greece, as well as the sea power Corinth.

Democracy was overthrown by the oligarchical party, which was in turn replaced by the more moderate regime of the Five Thousand. A brief treatment of the Peloponnesian War follows. Aided by a force of Spartans, Syracuse was able to break an Athenian blockade. Thus, the Athenians had the stronger navy and the Spartans the stronger army. The most popular things to do in Sparta with kids according to Tripadvisor travelers are: Hotels near Museum of the Olive and Greek Olive Oil, Hotels near Acropolis and Ancient Theater, Hotels near Archaeological Museum of Sparta, Hotels near Koumantareios Art Gallery of Sparta, Hotels near Embracing Our Monuments in Sparta, Hotels near (ATH) Eleftherios Venizelos Intl Airport, Sparti Taxi Services - Giannis Moutis Tickets, Things to do near (ATH) Eleftherios Venizelos Intl Airport, See all attractions in Sparta on Tripadvisor, Sparta (Acropolis) & Mystras (Medieval town), private tour from Athens(10 hours), Private Day Tour Athens to Ancient Sparta & Byzantine Mystras, Sparta - Bred for Battle! Further, the Athenians were better prepared financially than their enemies, owing to the large war chest they had amassed from the regular tribute they received from their empire. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Thucydides survived an attack of the plague and left a vivid account of its impact on Athenian morale. Diplomatic efforts to resolve the dispute failed. They attacked the Sicilian city Syracuse and campaigned in western Greece and the Peloponnese itself. For full treatment, see Ancient Greek civilization: The Peloponnesian War. To view Google Maps, enable JavaScript by changing your browser options, and then try again. Book your tickets online for the top things to do in Sparta, Greece on Tripadvisor: See 1,995 traveler reviews and photos of Sparta tourist attractions. Spartan initiatives during the plague years were all unsuccessful except for the capture of the strategic city Plataea in 427. Athens and Sparta had fought each other before the outbreak of the Great Peloponnesian War (in what is sometimes called the First Peloponnesian War) but had agreed to a truce, called the Thirty Years’ Treaty, in 445. But led by Brasidas, hero of the Battle of Delium, a Spartan force gained important successes in Chalcidice in 424, encouraging Athenian subject states to revolt. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription.