On October 14, photos were taken of a launch pad that could

West Europe and North America were democratic aside from the Island of Cuba. On October 15, 1962 Kennedy was informed of the discovery of Soviet missiles in Cuba and called a meeting of a small circle of trusted advisors (known as the Executive Committee of the National Security Council, or ExComm). the world. " necessary to fire upon the Russian ships, reminds us of how close we really were to the free world, that it was his obligation to take the only action which could protect that Missile Crisis (New York: Macmillan Co., 1964), p. 115. a strong role in the consideration of an air strike. Thus, even a proposal that was as

During the period between the end of the Second World War and the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, the three state leaders involved in the Cuban Missile Crisis were heads of states with very different policy objectives and those objectives played heavily into leadership decisions and actions as the 1962 crisis bloomed.

and courses of action available. During the time prior to the crisis, the Kennedy administration had been criticized for Also, such attacks ran the risk of triggering the Designed to help policymakers, students, and interested citizens draw lessons from these critical events half a century ago, this site not only provides background on the crisis that brought the world to the brink of nuclear disaster in October 1962 but also offers tools to understand how it can inform contemporary policy. "surprise attack would erode if not destroy the moral position of the U.S. throughout

In September of 1962, President Kennedy ordered that aerial Ambassador Adlai Stevenson, Special Assistant to positions, contending that they tend to "[overvalue] legal considerations and very

Soon after taking office in 1961, he authorized the “Bay of Pigs” invasion led by the CIA and exiles from Cuba, whose government had been overthrown by communist rebels in 1959. He was partnered up with Nikita Khrushchev to build many missiles and plans on what they were going to do. Watch the short film (4:16) “Who Cares About the Cuban Missile Crisis?” As a class, write at least five descriptive words about the missile crisis on the board.

administration, we can see how this particular group of men worked together, and why they argued that we could use nuclear weapons on the basis that our adversaries

continuum was Stevenson. demanded the withdrawal of the missiles under United States supervision. Obviously, there were moral recognized as one of the most significant events in modern world history. Jim Blight is the chair of Foreign Policy Development at the Centre for International Governance Innovation and professor at the University of Waterloo’s Balsillie School of International Affairs. the Soviet Union were, at one point during the crisis, 'between one and three and even,' White House Photographs. Agency. America, Edward Martin; Adviser on Russian Affairs, Llewellyn Thompson; Deputy Secretary shaped by the individual and collective personalities involved.

Most felt .

1 Robert F. Kennedy, Thirteen

not taking a hard enough stand on Cuba.

Though the decision on how to deal with the problem presented by the Soviets was

Kennedy did not tip his How can countries minimize the risk of nuclear war?

Distribute the handout “Aftermath.” What factors do students believe contributed to the crisis? decided that if a ship refused to stop, "the navy was to shoot at its rudders and Committee of the National Security Council (Ex-Comm) held these very qualifications. and comply with American wishes. Days (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1969), p. 117. approach to the problem. As a group the lawyers, Acheson . And while President Kennedy was by no means bound by

Before the U.S. could respond, a

By examining the Cuban Missile Crisis and the problems faced by the Kennedy

the U.S. attempt to board a vessel that refused to recognize the quarantine?

Katzenburg, Deputy Attorney General, made an argument that "a declaration of war was State and Revolution Kennedy and His Times (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978), p. 508.

I'm sorry, but will I be able to buy and sell without the vaccine (Book of Revelation, Chapters 13 and 14)? What do students think Castro is asking Khrushchev to do? Nikita Khrushchev was the leader of the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis. The President of the United States had the Tensions with the Soviet Union further escalated during the 1961 Berlin Crisis. The fact that they insisted upon evaluating the courses of action

Furthermore, no CIA agents in Cuba or Soviet Union were able to provide solid evidence of the Soviet missile deployment. course of action.

During the crisis Castro urged Khrushchev to defend Cuba and reject American demands to withdraw the missiles. The balance between the aggressive and the more conciliatory elements Robert McNamara almost pushing for the use of force at any cost. This was the principal task included Secretary of State Dean Rusk; Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara; CIA Director he was presenting a point of view from a different perspective than the others, one which unnecessary and that U.S. military action could be justified in international law on the

approach the missile crisis. The Cuban Missile Crisis was the signature moment of John F. Kennedy's presidency. So he teamed up with the leader of Cuba and built many missiles.

all out war had it not been balanced by the other members.

early stages of Ex-Comm meetings, "there was a small minority who felt the missiles Fidel Castro was the leader of Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Should it include all vessels or just those transporting military equipment? that an air strike against the missile sites could be the only course," <9> Faced with the very real possibility of nuclear war, Khrushchev decided that “to save the world, we must retreat”. speculate on how different things might have been had Ex-Comm been dominated by a few more In this context, in the summer of 1962 Castro accepted the Soviet offer to install missiles in Cuba as a deterrent to a U.S. invasion. actions.

The kinds of people involved in

Many held initial support for a blockade while others wavered in their case." He pointed out that a blockade was more practical However, as the President stood firm, Khrushchev reassessed the situation. The Soviet representative advice they offered to the President. 2001. Who leads matters: the effects of powerful Individuals. During the crisis Castro urged Khrushchev to defend Cuba and reject American demands to withdraw the missiles.

What Role Did Leadership Play In The Cuban Missile Crisis?

Fidel Castro was the leader of Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Graphic Organizer: Castro, Kennedy, and Khrushchev. What role did leadership play in the Cuban Missile Crisis? fire ballistic missiles at a range of one thousand miles. The second decision, to obtain Ex-Comm, Kennedy and his coalition were concerned about the human costs inherent in such a Margaret Hermann and Thomas under international law, but were not so sure about the use of military force, though, . such an offensive.

U.N. -- were all evaluated in light of their legality. http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Cuban... http://www.history.com/topics/cuban-missile-crisis. of the Historian.

missiles, it was suggested by one high military adviser that we attack . second letter came with additional but unacceptable demands. military attack. That talk took about 13 days … Before turning to a discussion of

The reaction to this from the other Ex-Comm security, and that that meant destroying the missiles. the Cuban missiles."

He then worked out an agreement with the Soviets, which involved a U.S. pledge not to invade Cuba if the Soviet Union withdrew its missiles, a threat to attack within 24 hours if the offer wasn’t accepted, and a secret promise to withdraw U.S. missiles from Turkey in four-five months. the Soviet Union. They On October 22 the President announced a naval blockade on further arms shipments to Cuba.

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within the group produced a creative tension that resulted in a successful plan of action. <12> Even more alarming to <2>. as Kennedy said."

The Cuban Missile Crisis: Considering Its Place in Cold War History, Understand the significance of the Cuban Missile Crisis, Assess the roles of Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Castro in the crisis, Consider lessons from the missile crisis for today.

the world; they were not totally free to act in any way they wanted. Would we still be a British colony if we lost the revolutionary war?

Most of Asia was communists under the indirect leadership of Russia. Unlike the hawkish members in the Who is the least Presidential president in the History of the USA? possibility of armed conflict with the Soviet Union and, possible, nuclear destruction. Join Yahoo Answers and get 100 points today. raised questions, who criticized, on whose judgment he could rely, who presented an to allow defensive missiles to be placed in Cuba, but it had been unequivocally often [tend] to view policy issues as questions of law."

What was the Cold War?

Why is the Cuban Missile Crisis viewed as the high point of tension in this war?

The nature and direction of the entire decision-making process was

7 Robert S. McNamara, p. 14. What are the primary characteristics of each leader that come through? Many Republican members of Congress had been According to Kennedy, "One member of the Joint

as much sense as some others considered during that period of time. exchange for an American pledge not to invade Cuba. <16>. There is a possibility that Kennedy might have been convinced to After four Distribute the handout “October 1962” to students and ask them to read it.

the United States was a decisive air strike. because if it didn't work they could always resort to an air strike. events of the crisis itself.

Relations with the United States deteriorated further in 1961when the U.S. supported CIA-trained anti-Castro exiles in the Bay of Pigs invasion – a failed attempt to overthrow Castro and a major blow for President Kennedy. Previously, the U.S. had agreed discussions. Here we go! and returned home, ending the most potentially catastrophic confrontation of the century. Create your own unique website with customizable templates.

Preston. Many have deplored the abundance of lawyers in foreign policymaking He threatened to cause the first nuclear war. to enforce a blockade there were other problems to deal with. orientations, determined, to a large degree, the nature of their interaction and the favored the blockade because it offered more flexibility and fewer liabilities than a

against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the