This program, the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), eliminates the “hierarchy rule” and looks at detailed offense, offender, victim, property, and arrest data in 22 crime categories and for 46 offenses. The protection officer can do a good job in preventing employee theft, only if he follows the methods outlined and the company policy. As such it draws heavily on basic geographical concepts such as space and place, and lends itself to detailed spatial analysis through geographical information systems. Determine the number of crimes committed for a ½-mile, 1-mile, or 3-mile radius, as appropriate, possibly adjusting for any natural boundaries that may skew the results, if the local jurisdictions maintain data at this level of detail. The first step in employee theft prevention is to learn and know the property items that can be stolen. If adjustments seem necessary, look to the costs and personal losses that a false negative may create. Is it in the best interest of the firm to err on the side of extra protective measures against a rape, even though the analysis may indicate the probability is very low (say, one in 25 years), rather than devote more resources to a higher-cost, higher-probability event, such as shoplifting? Only 16 percent of rapes are reported to the police. Extract the raw numbers from the rate, if a rate is used, by multiplying the basis by the rate. Marx, Engels, and Bonger on Crime and Social Control, 25. Reducing provocations: Setting rules, posting instructions, alert conscience, assisting compliance, and controlling drugs and alcohol (which we will replace with “provocation factors”). Preventive actions are important to employee theft prevention; however, wrongful actions by the protection officers can lead to civil and criminal problems. This book places emphasis on some of the novel, newer theories, and some of the often overlooked theoretical perspectives - particularly the newer integrative perspectives. Most embrace a ‘multifactor’ explanation, which, despite diffuseness, is probably correct. This method is based on criminological theories and established trends, but it has not been validated in a court of law or by a professional review board. Consider short-term or crime-specific items, such as workplace violence or domestic violence spillover. Thus, “clinical” criteria developed from the most recent trends, conditions, and the analyst’s experience are needed to add practical value to the results. Understand that “there are concerns that criminal justice data collection mechanisms are woefully inadequate and not standardized across the state and federal systems.”3, Crime statistics are inaccurate because of underreporting and differing interpretations of the definitions of crimes. Other factors that can affect recidivism include overestimation of the number of reoffenders because of political agendas and racism. A Sociological Theory of Criminal Behavior, 14. In this case, the demographics of the workforce, compared with the rate of victimization, should provide a more accurate projection. These varied theoretical paradigms have been subject to extensive and justifiable criticism for imprecision, tautological reasoning, inability to account for compliance and law-abiding behavior, confusing correlation and cause, or lack of empirical support. This book is an anthology of 34 previously published articles and book exerpts that focus on the major theories, past and present, that inform criminology today. In an industrial setting, we need to assume that the level of security protection is no different from the local standard.

The mechanism may be good parental supervision, an effective school or teacher, or the effects of voluntary organizations or community groups. A more recent effort is seen in Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) general theory of crime, which asserts that white-collar crime, like all crime and deviance, is impulsive, arising from the self-interested pursuit of pleasure and the tendency to seek short-term, immediate gratification, coupled with low self-control. The analyst must use great caution that subjective criteria do not add ambiguity or bias the results by unintentionally or subconsciously weighting factors to justify an agenda and that the added variables are not redundant.

Be sure to consider any special risks, such as the presence of local extremist groups. Increases or decreases in the rates are also affected by the level and focus of enforcement (that is, targeted enforcement) and by the efficiency of the enforcement agencies. Organizational Offending and Neoclassical Criminology: Challenging the Reach of a General Theory of Crime, PART V. CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES IN CRIME AND CRIMINOLOGY, 24. Criminology and The Holocaust: Xenophobia, Evolution, and Genocide, PART III: SOCIAL STRUCTURAL THEORIES OF CRIME, 6. This may take some research because these numbers are also subject to change. In Criminological Theories, the noted criminologist Ronald Akers provides thorough description, discussion, and appraisal of the leading theories of crime/delinquent behavior and law/criminal justice - the origin and history of each theory and its contemporary developments and adherents.